A History of United States Paper Money
Whether in dollars, pesos, or yen, the denomination of the note determines whether one can receive a steak dinner or a hamburger (or maybe not even a soda these days).
In most countries, the date of issue usually includes the day and month. In the United States, however, it only features the year of the last major design change. We know this by the signatures on the note and the dates those persons held office.
The Issuing Authority is the department or business that issues the currency. Today in the United States it is the Federal Reserve although that agency did not exist in the 19th Century. The United States government served as the Issuing Authority for the notes of the Atlantic Collection.